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Webinar 16 Q&A

Q1What are the criteria and mandatory should follow the runway ahead signs installations in the runway holding positions.? why should installed runway ahead signs before stopbar?

Sekar Balakrishnan
Information on the location requirements for signs at runway/ taxiway intersections is available in Annex 14 ( There is further information in ICAO ADM Part 4. The runway designation/location sign is nearest the runway.Tony
Q2For hold signs if you have both CAT-I & CAT-II/III holds do you need to have both the CAT-I inscription and the CAT-II/III inscription or is it acceptable to have only the CAT-II/III inscription..?

Paul Collins
Holding Position signs associated with Precision Approach operations should be installed at the relevant Hold location. At many airports two signs, Cat 1 and Cat 2/3, inscriptions are required with the Cat 2/3 located furthest from the runway. In some instances (no Cat 2/3) only a Cat 1 sign is required.Tony
Q3Could you describe the difference between type A and type B TGS.?
where it has to be installed? required applicable candelas details.

Sekar Balakrishnan
If a pattern A runway holding position marking is provided at a taxiway/runway intersection or runway/runway intersection a runway designation sign is required. If a pattern A runway holding position marking at a runway holding position in accordance with Annex 14 para 3.12.3 a runway holding position sign is required. If a pattern B runway holding position marking is provided the relevant Cat1/2/3 sign is required.Tony
Q4What is the font Name?

Diwakar Gajurel
The links in this answer are provided for your information only and are not guaranteed to exactly meet the specifications although they do seem to – in other words please feel free to use these fonts but it is at your own risk, and neither TMS Training Solutions or Tailor Made Systems take any responsibility for their accuracy or suitability for whatever purpose you wish to use them for.

Annex 14, Section (8th Edition) Section 5.2 has a diagram showing the definition of the proportions for the characters used for marking Runways. Note that the character set does not contain the full alphabet, but only the digits 0-9 and the letters L, R and C. I don’t think the font has an official name.

Windows uses something called “True Type” fonts, which use a similar method of definition for characters allowing them to be resized and someone has kindly made a Windows font using the proportions defined in Annex 14. There are other Fonts around which seem to include other letters of the alphabet, but this one I feel is the best one as it does restrict what you can display to just the defined characters.

To install it, download the zip file from here [ ] and unzip it. Right click on the ICAORWYID.ttf file and select “install” from the menu. This font can now be used in any Windows program that allows you to choose a font (such as Word).

Note that it installs as a font called “hhh” (on my system however it just shows as a blank entry in the list of fonts). I guess this is something you can live with if you obtain something for free!

There is also a link in the same article for a font used on taxiway signs, but this link doesn’t work as it has been changed. You can find this font here: Note that I could not find any documents which define how this font is designed – the font in this link is based upon the FAA document found here: . On my system this font has a strange definition for the letter ‘T’, but everything else appears to work.
Q5Earlier information signs used to be 600-630mm height, now OEMs are manufacturing 850-900 mm height.why? this may cause light source increase thus wattage increase.

Anonymous Attendee
Guidance Sign design & requirement CURRENTLY must be in accordance with ICAO Annex 14 Volume 1 and the guidance given in ICAO Aerodrome Design Manual Part 4. For FAA Approved projects these must be in accordance with the relevant FAA Advisory Circular(s). The ICAO Visual Aids Panel/Working Group have been discussing Guidance Sign design& application for some considerable time. However, we MUST meet the current standards. Should any further change be required there will be a timeframe allocated to this change to enable airports to comply. Regarding Candela output etc ... the assocated Iso-candela diagram and photometric measuring criteria is defined regardless to the choice of the actual light source choice.Keith
Q6How to protect from jet blast? Describe the chromaticity testing process?

Sekar Balakrishnan
Protection from Jet Blast has always been a problem. 2 things : Damage to facia alone + frangibility damage. 1. Facia damage will always be a factor dependent upon the aircraft and the location from the taxiway edge (hence the installation distance tolerance). Whilst, OEM's have made advances in the material specifications of the facia's unfortunatley damage will still occure but regular maintenance checks, cleaning and establishing a clear/clean area in front of the signs wherever practical will help ! 2. Frangibility .. the consideration of installing the signs at an angle rather then perpendicular to the taxiway centreline is a consideration. This will deflect wind and jet blast to some degree. The angle selected could be based upon the criteria define in the FAA Advisroy Circular for Runway Guard Lights ( Wig Wags). 3. Regarding the testing for Cromaticity, may I request you contact TMS Photmetrics directly ( contact : Mr Robert Shapton on His team will provide a more specific answer of the testing process using their new MALMS Photometric PAPI & Signs tester.Keith
Q7Hi Tony,

Do you know any company that made variable signs?? It's mentioned in annex 14 and i think it should be useful.

Mohammad Ghashghaee
Variable message/ addressable signs should be deployed now that the technology has matured. Using this type of signs has operational benefits. A variable message facility offers a means of increasing a pilot’s situational awareness in the dynamic ground movement scenario. The ability to limit the sign information by selection would remove the current human factors anomaly where pilots ignore mandatory signs (where a mandatory clearance is required) because the sign message is deemed to non-operational at the time of observation. Probably the best way to identify equipment manufacturers would be to use a search-engine on the Web.Tony
Q8As per last webinar In middle east sign board facia's also prepared by maintenace staff, font of legend/alphabets/Taxiway nomenclature should be whch font? (eg-calibri/Arial/Times new roman etc..)

Anonymous Attendee
Please see answer to Q4.Paul
Q9Excellent presentation thanks to Mr.Keith.

Sekar Balakrishnan
Thank you ror your participation and contributing over the last 15 weeksKeith, Tony, Paul and Robert
Q10Apart from frangibility, color chromaticity, cd/m2 what are other ICAO complaince requirements?

Anonymous Attendee
The other ICAO Standards in Annex 14 for signs specify, in detail, a particular font for letters and numbers, the size of inscriptions and the size of the sign face. Sign location is also specified in relation to runway/taxiway hold position.
Q11Are there any signs based on LED/ LCD screens where the face text could be changed?

Vineet Nagia
Please answer to Q7.Tony
Q12Thank you gentlemen for your kind effort.


Kuvvet Sazak
Thank you ror your participation and contributing over the last 15 weeksKeith, Tony, Paul and Robert
Q13Most of the signs adjacent to runway are both side.

If we angle one seen from one side may ok but seen from other side may difficult
if that so what about the compliances.

Thanks for all.

Asoka Leelarathne
When it comes to runway related guidance signs , we normally design the layout/installation so that Guidance Signs are on the side of the runway related to the exit. For military applications the "Distance to Go" Guidance Signs are on both sides but they are not related to an exit hence this issue will not exist.Keith
Q14Are the IHP for TXY holding points LVO route signages mandatory(red) or information(black)? Note these are on TXY only and not for RWY entrance.

Nawar Rehawi
All holding position signs should be red because they, with ATC, provide a control function. However, particularly on long taxiways, if an aeronautical study shows that the designation of specific reporting points by a sign can be beneficial in optimising movement rates by increasing pilot/controller situational awareness then this is a guidance/information function and appropriate information signage should be specified.Tony
Q15Is it mandetory to have Holding position signs sholud be with Alphabet along with Number?

Thank you very much for the nice webinars.

Anonymous Attendee
Yes. Both numbers and letters are used for holding signs.Tony
Q16Could you provide comprencive training details.

Sekar Balakrishnan
Full training details can be provided directly by our Training Manager Felicity PARKES on ( Our trainings are comprehensive, in a new format requirment associated with Basic Training, Qualification Training, Continuation Training and Development Training leading the recognisable AGL competency award.Keith

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