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Webinar 15 Q&A

#QuestionAnswerAnswered By
Q1If I have AGL responsibilities at an airfield that has no precision approach aids but intends to enhance its services are there any particular issues that I should raise during the design phases of the project?If you are not intending to support precision approaches then Annex 14 para – describe the relevant Standards and Recommended Practices. Note the requirements in and to ensure that pilots have sufficient cues to easily fly a visual circuit prior to the final approach. Runway edge, threshold and end lighting (5.3.9 – 5.3.11) is required. For non-precision approaches a visual approach slope indicator is generally required (see Remember that in non-precision operations the only means of providing this important information is by the installation of a visual aid (PAPI). It can be argued that glideslope guidance is often the first priority in this type of operation.Tony
Q2Is there a need for in-service testing of AGL if my airfield does not support non-visual approach procedures?Yes. It is essential that the performance of the visual aids is maintained whatever approach and take-off procedures are specified. In non-precision approach operations, and in all take-offs visual cues generally provide the only pilot aids.Tony
Q3What should be the performance levels required during acceptance testing of a new AGL installation? What are the relative merits of ground-based monitoring and a flight check during installation acceptance testing?A new AGL installation must comply with the minimum intensity and beam-spread characteristics specified in Annex 14. Any installation that does not meet the appropriate Standards is not compliant and should not be accepted into service. ( a 50% light level during system commissioning is not compliant. This intensity it is only .used to define operationally when a light is deemed to be out of service).Tony
Q4What is actually meant by "aligned longitudinally & transversely" when installing inset light bases?This means that the base units need to be installed straight & level according to the pavement surface or as defined by the light fixture manufacturer.Keith
Q5Which type of grout is most suited to all practical and environmental conditions for installing inset light bases?There are different types of grouts used in AGL installations globally. However, each have their own properties for suitability and for the process of mixing & application. Many do not possess all the capabilities for all the environmental conditions & applications needed PLUS some require an element of experience by the installer to correctly use them (This is a risk factor).. My experience is that an EPOXY based resin is the most appropriate for all possible AGL applications.Keith
Q6Should there be "earthing cabling" from an inset light unit installation back to the transformer pit ( and/or an earth rod) and installed with the secondary cabling?The introduction of LED light fixtures where there are a range of internal electronics inside the light fixture itself compared to the lower technology Tungsten Halogen lamps, and that these electronics are not protected within a '"Faraday cage" + this has become more apparent with the 'smart" light concept for ILCMS application, means that additional protection is required in the event of external electrical interference. Hence, it would seem appropriate to add additional protective measures such as an earthing cable between the internals of the light unit back to the transformer pit earthing network. Advice should be taken from the light fixture manufacturer.Keith
Q7Dear Keith

Where can i find torque standards for lights?

Mohammad Ghashghaee
The actual torque settings for securing inset lights to their respective base units are given in the AGL Manufacturers/ Suppliers Technical Manuals.Keith
Q8Hi Keith,

What are your thoughts on centreline ducting rather that secondary ducts from the pits ?

Wayne Rolfe
I assume that this question surrounds the use of CEDD technology and the twisted pair wires rather than the standard 6.6A series circuit technology ! Providing ducting is suitably installed of the correct type & at the correct depth according to civil & electrical engineering standards for power & communication cabling + for the respective pavement type (concrete or asphalt) then I see no restrictions.Keith
Q9Thanks for the presentation 👍🏻

Aisha Alzahmi
Thank you for your participation.Robert
Q10Make sure the tags are checked first!

Wayne Rolfe
All MALMS RFID tags are tested prior to shipment but we advise reading tag immediately following instalation to check it can be read.Robert
Q11Muscat all tags position north side of the fitting location FYI

Steve Hutton
This is recommended best practice per MALMS Engineer – Installation of RFID Tags Doc I – 1088 - ARobert
Q12What should be the depth of core cut for a 12" shallow base and what is the acceptable gap between the base and asphalt pavement??

Karan Basnet
The depth of a 12 inch shallow base cored hole will be directly dependent upon the size of manufacturer's base unit. However, the types of resin and the application process both will be a factor, If you provide us with the details of the base unit, we can recommend the type of resin + the recommended details for core size of depth and the gap to the asphalt pavement.Keith
Q13With the improvement of technolodgy meny of the airport upgraded their AGL systems with high performance LED lights with high cost for the long lasting operation but most of the products will not perform as there design levels of performances considaring these coditions will you recomended to upgrade aerodromes with LED.

Asoka Leelarathne
It is becoming clearer as LED light sources are adopted for AGL that there are a number of issues that need to be addressed before LED systems can have the same level of integrity as has been the case for TH light sources. Some of these issues have been identified during in-service maintenance monitoring. Development work on a new technology or product is expensive and usually has a long time scale (typically 10% research - 90% development) There are signs that not enough effort has been expended ( by manufacturers. international standards organisations and regulators) The long life of LED sources in laboratory conditions (research) is a significant benefit but the in-service performance issues that are surfacing (development) need to be attended to. Operational problems need to be clearly identified (published) and systems designers and LED technologists need to resolve the issues. ICAO Visual Aids Working Group would be a suitable forum for this work to be progressed. It is clear that LED light sources are going to be the dominant light technology for many years and as a result it is going to be increasingly difficult to obtain TH light sources. Wider considerations (AGL is a small market globally) are going to determine AGL technology decisions. In the short term airport designers and procurement managers need to make themselves aware that LED technology does have operational limitations and to educate themselves regarding the issues.Tony
Q14What will be AGL in near future?

Kuvvet Sazak
See answer to Q 13. Apart from LED implementation issues I suggest that it is very unlikely that the visual signalling requirements for the the main AGL systems will change. However, it is likely that new technologies will be introduced that will extend the functionality of some elements (selective switching off taxiway centreline lights, addressable signs)Tony
Q15It should be specified by the consultant and airport in the tender before prohect award so the contractor is fully aware.

Wayne Rolfe
Q16What kind of conduct will suitable in new runway for inset light fitting for secondary cable and what should be the depth of conduct?

Diwakar Gajurel
The conduit type & size will normally be defined by the designer associated with civil construction. However, there are also national standards associated with cable voltage levels and repective depths of cable & conduit according to voltage /current carrying capacity of the cable. Methods for installing secondary cable + the possible choice of ducting is also dependent upon concrete or asphalt pavements. We can advise if you provide us with further details & location.Keith
Q17According to ICAO 50% is a minimum. Can we find any stadered which mentioning the requred level of maintenance 70% or 90% etc.

Since the manufactured and contractors always argue with us their products always comply with ICAO because the performance just above 50%.

But the products from leading manufactures also do not perform well, lots of failures.

Asoka Leelarathne
We are very clear of what is required as a commissioning standard and this MEANS that the ICAO Iso candela standard , as defined in ICAO Annex 14 Vol 1 given as the "Mininum Average" value shall be met ie. 100% at 6.6amps. This needs to be reflected in the Site Acceptance Documentation. The maintenance value of 70% is a recommendation in the ICAO Services Manual Part 9 but this value can be determined by the Airport maintenance management. It is natural that maintenance servicing work is carried out BEFORE the failure point. The failure point being 50% of the design value!Keith
Q18Will you recomended to connect LED lights with SCR contrlod CCR?

Asoka Leelarathne
The AGL LED light fixtures were designed to be a direct replacement for Tungsten Halogen (TH) illuminated light units in all respects and as such should operate correctly & respectively. However, the technology of an LED is fundamentally different to the TH and with some models of SCR (Thyristor) based CCR units there have been issues of flickering of the lights at lower intensity levels.Keith
Q19Thanks to you all for the valuble webinair.

Asoka Leelarathne
Thank you for your participation.Robert
Q20Thank you Team TMS

Sekar Balakrishnan
Thank you for your participation.Robert

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