For privacy reasons YouTube needs your permission to be loaded.
I Accept

Webinar 11 Q&A

Q1In Annex 14 it is stated that the number of lights normally specified to provide the approach and runway lighting patterns can be reduced if certain conditions are met (see para.,,, and Fig 5-15. Please explain the reasoning behind these reductions and the circumstances in which these reduced patterns can be used?The reduction in the number of lights required to produce the approach and runway lighting patterns (but not to amend the patterns) was the result of work done by members of the ICAO Visual Aid Panel in 1995-1997. The project was initiated for several reasons:

(1) the costs associated with AGL, especially when additional lighting is required in very low visibilities

(2) the wish to reduce electrical power consumption, on the grounds of cost and environmental concerns

(3) operational experience that suggested that the lighting specified in 1973 over-provided in the content of patterns

(4) improvements in light unit engineering (4) the emergence of mobile lighting performance testing capabilities that allow better light output levels to be achieved by good maintenance practices.

The decision by the VAP at a meeting in 1997 to recommend the reductions now included in Annex 14 was based on extensive flight tests in low visibility and simulator experiments, largely in the UK and reported in detail at the VAP meeting. Briefly the research clearly showed that if lighting is maintained to the standards required by ICAO then fewer light units are required. One highlight of the research was the demonstration of the safety of a 30m spaced runway centreline in all conditions, even when during the ground roll the spacing increased to 60 m Circuit failure). The conclusion of the VAP was that the number can be significantly reduced to the level recommended provided that it can be demonstrated that the lighting is being maintained adequately using the mobile in-service testing equipment.
Q2In Annex 14. the collective notes to the iso-candela specifications presented in Appendix 2 include mandatory requirements for the intensity ratios between various elements of the overall lighting system. Why are these ratios mandatory and what can be done to ensure that these ratios are complied with during procurement and in service?The ratios specified ensure that one of the important operational requirements of AGL, namely that once a useable segment of lighting pattern is acquired during an operation it is at least maintained for the remainder of that operation. Significant reductions in what a pilot can see can induce handling errors and hence compromise safety. When procuring equipment the iso-candela performance offered by the manufacturer should be scrutinised and compared with the output of other elements of the AGL. The intensities in Annex 14 are operational minima so it is possible to install a 30,000 cd approach pattern but this will have an effect on the light output requirements of all other AGL lights. High levels of maintenance are required to ensure that the ratios are provided in service.Tony
Q3Why is a PAPI required if an ILS is provided for the runway ?  In Annex 14 paragraph , supplemented by Attachment A section 12 the mandatory requirements for the provision of visual glideslope (PAPI) information can be found. They actually apply whether or not an ILS is provided. These requirements explain how PAPI provision assists operations in normal conditions. In addition it can be noted that there are occasions when an ILS is unserviceable, due to the guidance being out of tolerance or the system undergoing maintenance. Where a temporary displaced threshold is in use, perhaps for several months, a PAPI can be readily be sited and installed on a temporary basis. In all these situations the PAPI plays an enhanced role. Tony
Q4When doing a design for AFL, do you normally design for a straight fitting in a toed can or a toed fitting in a straight can? Is there a benefit either way?Normally, a toed-in fitting with a shallow base or a deep base aligned parallel to the runway centre line is the method used. This is easier to achieved correct installation of the base alignment. Though care has to be taken to ensure that the correct toe-in fitting (LEFT or RIGHT toe-in) is secured in the correct location.

The other method is to use non toed-in straight fixtures and align to the desired toe-in angle. This would require the surveyor to provide reference points to mark a line through the base for the desired toe-in. This would ensure no incorrect fixture toe-in type selection at installation or maintenance, though requires more initial care at civil installation.

Both methods exist. The first method is the most common and the one I design too, though I have worked on projects with the 2nd type as this was the standard across the airport on other runways.
Q5In your presentation, you mention the risks associated with integration of different manufacturer equipment, how can an airport protect itself against the risk of incompatibility?I touched on this at the start of the presentation and I will look at equipment selection in more detail in Webinar 11.

An airport can protect itself by using a single supplier.
Q6What acceptance criteria would you recommend for a new lighting installation? E.g. Photometric, Torque, IR?For Photometric testing the lights tested must meet the ICAO isocandela diagrams for candela intensity, colour performance and coverage (horizontal and vertical beam spread, toe-in and alignment).

All fixtures must be torqued with a calibrated setting torque wrench as per OEM values contained in their manuals. Different torque values exist across suppliers and you must always follow the OEM values.

Guidance on torqueing of bolts, clamp force and use of interlocking washers FAA EB 83A In-Pavement Light Fixture Bolts.

The Insulation Resistance values for new circuits should be in the region of 2GΩ. The testing procedures for airfield circuits are contained in the ICAO ADM Part 5 Ed. 2, it should be noted the new primary circuits should be tested once at twice the rated voltage.
Q7How do I get in touch with John regarding some AGL works?Thanks, I can be contacted on and and John
Q8ICAO states that the taxiway edge lights on a curve should be spaced at intervals less than 60m, so that the indication of a curve is clear. What exact spacing should be used on curves?The best source to answer this is the tables and diagrams in the FAA 150/5340-30J Design and Installation Details for Airport Visual Aids - Appendix A that provide guidance on the spacing for taxiway edge lights on curves. The spacing and number of taxiway edge lights required will depend on the radius of the taxiway edge curve.John
Q9How far from a taxiway edge marking should the elevated runway guard lights be installed?Typically a pair of elevated RGL’s are installed 3m to 5m from the taxiway edge marking and possibly further if elevated stop bars are installed. Guidance is provided in Transport Canada AC 302-005 Runway Guard Light Installation CriteriaJohn
Q10Why do some airports have their Touchdown Zone ( TDZ) lights spaced at 60 metre intervals and not the standard 30 metre intervals?There is often a misunderstanding regarding the interpretation of the standards & guidance given in Annex 14. The standard gives airports the opportunity to have a reduced visual approach & landing configuration for CAT II/III operations providing the airport can demonstrate that the lighting in those systems ( side row barrettes & touchdown lights) meet the minimum serviceability requirements as maintenance objectives as defined in Chapter 10. See also Annex 14 Vol 1 Ed 8 >>> Para for approach system side row barrettes & for touchdown zone lights. This is demonstrated in figure 5-15 >> READ the Figure title at the bottom!! Our Question to you >>>> How can you demonstrate serviceability if you do not photometrically measure and analyse the results. Many airports do not meet this requirement??Keith
Q11Where do I find the Runway Guard Light's (Wig Wags) vertical & horizontal alignment angles at their chosen location?ICAO Annex 14 Vol 1 or the Aerodrome Design Manuals do not give this detail other than they shall be seen by the pilot of an oncoming aircraft of the driver of an oncoming vehicle. Details & guidance for this can be found in the USA's FAA Advisory Circular 150/5340-30. Additional information can also be found in FAA AC 150/5340-26.Keith
Q12How can I electrically connect the RETIL's so that when one light fails, all are extinguished?ICAO do not give guidance on the electrical configurations for RETIL's other than the performance requirement that should one(1) light unit fail than all should extinquish. Two (2) methods exist >> Preferred method (1) : Connect each light to its own secondary circuit utilising ILCMS technology and configure accordingly. Alternative method (2): Have one (1) long secondary circuit with all ligh tfixtures in series with each other such that ewhen one light fails, the circuit becomes an open circuit and all lights extinquish. PLEASE NOTE: Method 2 >>> With modern LED fixture technology, as available today, and is selected as the light fixture ... this can be difficult to achieve!Keith
Q13How best can one install secondary cabling on an already existing asphalt/concrete? As an AGL personnel responsible for taxiway centre installation project i have the following options. Slot at 1000mm depth, 80mm thickness and then back-fill with resin. With movements and varying temperatures the resin pops up along with the cable creating maintenance night mares. An alternative would be resurface once secondary cabling has been concluded but the during maintenance we still have to cut the slot. The spacing of lights is 15m/7.5m while manholes are spaced 60m apart, my concern now is does this affect the actual PCN?

Katlego Mohlala
There is clear electrical & civil engineering guidance available as to the depth and width of the civil engineering aspects for cable laying both in ducts or directly buried according to the cable type and voltages involved. The statement/question given appears that this generic guidance has not been followed + the type of sealant/resin selected may be incorrect and/or the installation process has not been followed. Additional correspondance & advice can be given if you contact us directly!Keith
Q14A while back we tried to install 35mm diameter sleeves at a depth of 300mm but with time the sleeves pops us as-well. 

Katlego Mohlala
See answer for Questiion 13 … Additional guidance can be given if you contact us directly!Keith
Q15For smooth & regular operation of airport mainly AGL & associated other accessories such as crash siren, apron mast lights , runway lighting system, taxiway lighting system, obstruction lights, airfield signage, approach lighting and PAPI lighting system etc. for precision category II Airport. What are major criteria for selecting/designing for?

• Power supply system selecting to whole AGL System?

• CCRs selecting criteria for above mentioned airfield lighting system when there is five taxiways, 11 apron bay stand ,3000 meters runways etc.

• Ups selection criteria and requirement for ALCMS (not individual ,all)

• Primary & secondary cable selection criteria when halogen /led lamp is used.

• Isolating transformer selection criteria for halogen /led lamp is used.

• Power protection requirement for AGL power supply and current standard practice and earthing ,surge protection, over/under voltage protection and earth fault protection etc.

• Repair maintenance criteria & requirement for whole AGL system and safety precaution for authorized person(i.e. stand by duties, shift duties, scheduled maintenance etc.)

• PPE requirement for AGL operations maintenance regularly.

• Fault diagnosis technique etc.

Rajendra Prasad Timilsina
The power supply requirements will vary from site to site and category of operation. ICAO gives the maximum allowable switchover times in the event of a power failure between the primary and secondary power source.

For the primary source ideally the airport will have its own clean dual power supply from the electrical grid. Their will be a redundant electrical ring and transformers for each AGL substation and ATC

In the event of a power failure at an AGL substation the automatic switchover panel will select the UPS to carry the critical load (Switchover times defined by ICAO per AGL system in each CAT condition) until the standby generator can take the load after typically 8 - 10 seconds

The CCRs shall be sized accordingly to the load and tapped correctly during commissioning. The selected CCR type will Thyristor or IGBT type, newer IGBT type are more efficient and at full load can be close to unity PF

Cable and transformer type need to be considered based on technology being used especially with ILCMS which will be addressed in Webinar 11

Guidance is provided on your all topics in the ICAO ADM Part 5 Ed.2
Q16Is Threshould wing bar a mandatory requirement for the runways with displaced threshould?

Asoka Leelarathne
Please see Annex 14 Vol 1 Ed 8 for guidance, See Chapter 5 Figure 5-22 Further details are in Chapter 5.3.10. Generally, Threshold wingbar lights are optional whereby Theshold lights are mandatory. However, there are some deviations >> Threshold lights SHALL be installed for lights at the extremity of the runway or a displaced threshold and Threshold wingbar lights are desirable if additional conspicuity is required but SHALL be installed for a displaced threshold where normal threshold lights cannot be installed. From a designers viewpoint, we would always recommend installing Wingbar lights when a threshold is displaced with or without the actual threshold lights being available.Keith
Q17Cant we installed theshould lights as a wing bar for a non displaced threshouled runway?

Asoka Leelarathne
YES … see answer to Question 16 …. The actual wording in Annex 14 however does lead to some confusion but threshold wingbar lights can be installed for a non-displaced runway and are adopted at many airfields + are an additional visual aid to identify the actual threshold.Keith
Q18Good morning Robert,

Congratulations for the webinars and greetings from Mexico.

For this webinar could you please ask John, under which circumstances we can substitute taxiway edge elevated lights for unlighted taxiway markers ?

Many thanks in advance,

Oswaldo AV
This question came up during the live Q&A session

Taxiways operating at night should have taxiway edge lights on the straight sections and curves (Guidance given above in Question 8 on spacing). ICAO sets out all the criteria for having taxiway edge lights in Annex 4 Vol I 5.3.18

In airport with taxiway centre line lighting installed, the taxiway edge lights are typically only installed on curves and omitted on the straight sections, which are replaced with retroreflective markers to limit the effects of the "Sea of Blue" (ICAO ADM Part 4 Ed.4 9.2). For guidance on taxiway edge markers see Annex 14 Vol I 5.5.5

Q19What are diffrenent type of CAT II/III approaches? How we decide which formation to install?

Muhammad Asjad
The different approach type where covered in earlier Webinar 2. There are two type of CAT II/III precision approach lighting.
Type A is the Distance Coded Approach also known as the CL5B or "Calvert" and Type B is the Barrette type. For CAT II/III both precision approach patterns will be supplemented with additional WHITE in the inner 300m and RED side row lighting.

Which formation to install can be dictated by the local CAA and I as stated in the webinar I would always check what types are installed already at a particular airport and is adopted nationally. Of, course there are many exceptions for different approach used across a country.

The type A provides more guidance to the pilot, though due to its configuration requires more design and installation considerations

The type B requires less design and installation considerations

The quantity of lights is also to be considered with your budget

Type A = (120 CAT I) + (34 inner 300m) + (72 Side Row)
Type A = 154 + 72 = 226

Type A = (136 CAT I) + (8 inner 300m) + (54 or 72 Side Row)
Type A = 144 + 54 or 72 = 198 or 216
Q20Is ICAO alows to switched ON Threshould lights and aproach lights at the both side of the runway simultaniously?

Very very usefull presentation Thanks for everyone for giving us a more valuble presentation.

Asoka Leelarathne
NO … this would potentially lead to operational confusion. Normally, we configure the control system such that this cannot inadvertantly happen!Keith
Q21What are the requirement to determine the Category of Installation of new approach system?

Galaxy Grand Prime+
Details of approach lighting systems are in Annex 14 section 5.3.4. Application details are given in

A simple approach lighting system is recommended for non-instrument approaches and non- precision approaches, especially where night operations take place. Furthermore, the installation of Category 1 lighting can be considered as a helpful improvement to the cues available for non- precision operations.

For precision approach Category 1 operations, a Category 1 approach lighting system is mandated. If it is impracticable to provide the full system (due to siting issues, for example) then operational limits will be adversely affected.

For precision approach Category 2 and 3, operations a Category 2 and 3 approach lighting system is mandated.
Q22Interleave circuits for taxiway lighting is required?? and in which code??

Khalad ElOrr
Interleaving will be discussed in Webinar 11. Interleaving is not required for taxiway edge lighting.
Stop bar are interleaved and all taxiway centre line lighting should be interleaved, though ICAO does allow single circuits on straight sections.

I always design for interleaved taxiway centre line circuits
Q23Which ICAO docment provide guidance about TOE IN chart design?

Muhammad Asjad
Q24Can we increase Angle on approach instead of height?

Galaxy Grand Prime+
Threshold crossing height or OCS issues can be addressed by increased using PAPI guidance to increase the approach angle (not readily possible with ILS) This procedure does not help with harmonisation issues and will generally make the situation worse.Tony
Q25Can u send us the PAPI excel sheet calculations by an email.

Khalad ElOrr
No, the calculation method shown is contained in ICAO ADM Part 4 Ed. 4 Chapter 8 Example A. The method shown in the webinar is only based on the specific inputs given.

Significant alteration would be required to allow the example to be expanded for a particular airport. The user would have to fully understand the correct data to enter and be able to verify the result given. The method show was put into excel as an educational tool to allow a better understanding on the complexities on a PAPI calculation.

PAPI calculations should only be preformed by experts and then verified on site prior to installation
Q26May i get webinar recording video???

Chandramohan Narayana
Yes, a copy of the Webinar recording will be sent to you via e-mail. All Webinar recordings and relevant information can be viewed on our website ( Recordings and information are normally uploaded to the website 2 - 3 days after each event.Robert
Q27What limitations do you need to consider for ILCMS technology especially for communication speed. Distance, environment, straight / bends?

John, its a "GRAND" presentation. Thanks Wayne

Wayne Rolfe
ILCMS considerations will be discussed in Webinar 11.John
Q28Is interleave for taxiway AGL circuits required in ICAO or FAA??

Khalad ElOrr
Interleaving is a requirement for all AGL runway & taxiway lighting circuits with the exception of taxiway edge circuits and RETILS. Interleaving is required for taxiway centreline circuits on taxiways used in CAT II/III conditions & essential for aircraft safety and for taxiways used as an A-SMG&CS route. ICAO Design Manual Part 5 Chapter 6 refers.Keith
Q29Your example would use a 100W transformer(?) and as such would the overall minimum power requirement for the CCR would be even higher before the requirement for an additional 20% capacity..

Wayne Rolfe
The calculation shown as taken from ICAO ADM Part 5 Ed. 2. Chapter 8

The values used where taken from the tables, such as lamp tolerance, transformer efficiency and ILMCS load .

Any calculation performed should use the specific data relevant to the equipment being used and the exact site conditions. The data should use the given OEM loads, OEM given resistance of the cable types per km, transformer efficiencies, cable CSA, cable lengths and any specific OEM requirements that need considerations.
Q30Any technical reason for Multiply IR values by 5 for Dry (by2 for wet) conditions.

Sudheer N
This formula to calculate the IR based on allowable insulation leakage current in micro-amperes leakage will give the minimum value and this value will typically be way below the minimum acceptable resistance value of 50 MΩ

The factors used for wet and dry are used in industry best practice.

Though for new circuits a common value used is 2GΩ
Q31Can we use only 5 or 6 Taxiway edge lights at curve lights (if we already have TCL) even in cat III?

Sudheer N
The spacing of taxiway edge lights fort ALL category operations are reduced around the bends and this spacing is chosen according to the radius of the bend. See answer to Question 8 for clarification!Keith
Q32What is John's recommended solution for installation of inset lights: shallow or deep bases? Is there any case where one is definetely better than or the other? Or even the only choice?

I forgot: Thanks Lorenzo

Lorenzo Rossini
I would recommend shallow bases. Shallow bases are easier to install and replace. It is the FAA methodology to use deep cans for both elevated and inset fixtures, but I have only ever used deep bases for elevated fixtures.

Also if you use deep bases for 8” inset fittings than an adaptor ring from 12” to 8” is required and this means more bolts to torque
Q33Do we have to mark the entrance of taxiway with double lights on either edge of taxiway?

Bilal Ahmed
Yes. See Annex 14 paragraph This provides information on the necessary Runway Guard Lights.Tony
Q34Hello, dear keith, do you have draft edition of annex 14, 2020?? and, does the 3rd edition of 9981 published?

Mohammad Ghashghaei
Hi Mohammad .... There is currently no re-release of either of the documents at present :
The following is currently listed from ICAO >>

Annex 14 — Aerodromes. Volume I — Aerodrome Design and Operations. Annex 14, Volume I, contains Standards and Recommended Practices that prescribe the physical characteristics, obstacle limitation surfaces and visual aids to be provided at aerodromes, as well as certain facilities and technical services normally provided at an aerodrome. 8th edition, incorporating Amendments 1–14. July 2018. 354 pp
Amendment 13B – not applicable until Nov 2020 – Runway condition, clarification & reporting. However, I believe, due to COVID, this has been delayed until 2021.

Doc 9981 — Aerodromes. 2nd edition, 2016. 148 pp. ISBN 978-92-9258-123-7 Amendment 2 (applicable 8/11/18 and 5/11/20)
Amendment 2 applicability 5 November 2020 • Chapter 8 – Runway Safety – Prevention of runway incursions, excursions and confusion through different strategies, including, among others: – Effective identification of hazards related to RS – Risk mitigation – Coordination and cooperation between stakeholders – Establishment of runway safety teams (RST). – Collection and the promulgation of safety information – Suspension/closure of runway operations
Q35Dear Keith, could we place two APCH centerline LGTs with with distance of 36m instead of 30m bucause of some stuff on the ground?? i mean, for lights placed at 360m and 420m on centerline?

Mohammad Ghashghaei

This need can occur when obstacles such as a dual-carriageway highway passes through the approach path area (outside the airfield) boundary and the location of APCH lights "lands" exactly in one of the vehicle lanes. In these cases, the location of these specific lights is moved to the central reservation between the two (2) highway carriageway areas. Clearly, the APCH light location has a distance discrepancy.

What we would normally do in this scenario, to minimise the effect of a different location distance between these lights and the other (30 metre distance) light locations, we re-calculate !
ie. In these situations, we re-calculate (trigonometry calculation) the height for those specific lights at the revised re-location according to the light plane profile, as adopted for that whole & particular approach path, such that there is only a small visual effect to the location change at a nominal 3 degrees glide slope angle.
As stated, this minimises the "change of distance" effect between lights for a pilot landing at the glide slope angle and when utilising the visual aids.
Q36How do you choose the distance between RWY THR and the first pair of RWY edge lights? should it be exactly 60m?? or they can be less than 60m , but other must be 60m??

Mohammad Ghashghaei
For an instrument runway the lights shall be uniformly spaced in rows at intervals of not more than 60 m.

Typically the distance between the thresholds is divided equally and a uniform value less than 60m is adopted, such as 59.xxxm

But I have seen at many airports a uniform spacing used between the fixtures (1st row and final row) with an odd spacing value adopted at one or both thresholds (less the uniform value used between the 1st and final row)
Q37If we lost one circuit of Runway C/L then there will be two adjacent failure which is non compliance as per serviceavility level requirments. Isn't it?

Prashant Dubey

Losing one interleaved circuit does not strictly contravene the regulation which deals with the case when all circuits are in use. However, I would recommend that pilots are notified and if the circuit fault persists for a long time then the centreline lights should be designated as unseviceable, particularly for precision approach operations.Tony
Q38Is there any technical reason of selection of current as 6.6 Amp , 5.4 Amp , 4.1 Amp and so on..............The reasoning is based upon light output need, as defined in ICAO Aerodrome Design Manual (ADM)Part 4 Chapter 5, and is in accordance with visibility conditions ie. RVR (Runway Visible Range) & Day/Dusk/Night periods etc.
ICAO Annex 14 defines a generic 100%,30%,10%,3% &,1% intensity need for AGL light intensity whereby the ICAO's ADM Part 4 defines the requirements far more specifically and gives a minimum & maximum % option for each visibility condition.
To achieve the % levels required, and based upon a Tungsten Halogen light source & AGL distribution circuitry where in a constant current series circuit, the light output is directly proportional to the primary current value, the current values have been determined accordingly.

However, TAKE NOTE :
1. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Standard (IEC 61822 for CCR's - Constant Current Regulators) defines the constant current level(s) which a CCR must deliver for each intensity step change, whereby the ICAO in their ADM Part 4 gives a maximum & minium % range for each operational visibility condition. The maximum for both (ICAO & IEC) of 100% , as defined in the Isocandela diagrams in Annex 14, is based upon 6.6 Amps being delivered to the light fixture.

2. The current values you have listed are based upon the minimum % values for the ICAO intensity range whereby the % values listed by ICAO (100%.30%,10% etc) are at the maximum % values.
In summary .... the current values set by the CCR technical standard are NOT directly proportional to the ICAO maximum intensity levels defined by ICAO in Annex 14 & ADM Part 4.

Hence, all CCR manufacturers design their units such that current settings can be adjusted accordingly due to operational or other needs. These should be set, checked and/or adjusted at commissioning and re-checked during operational maintenance.

Generically, the runway lighting systems should have a minimum of 5 intensity step options whereby taxiway lighting systems should have minimum of 3 intensity step levels!
Q39We are building a new Txy. our contractor suggested to install a 10 kva ccr. can we install a 30 kva instead for any future expansion connection? knowing the price difference is affordable.

Nawar Rehawi
If installing a larger rated CCR then required, you must ensure that the CCR is commissioned correctly for the actual load, otherwise the CCR will have a low efficiency and power factor based on being oversized

In theory yes, you can use a larger CCR. Though it is always best to use the correct rated CCR for the particular system. Guidance on will be provided in the manual of your selected CCR supplier
Q40Are the slides provided as well after the presentation?

William Tamata
Q41Average intensity ratio note manufactures do not design there fittings to this requirement - John how do you address this requirement - I know Australian Defence mix and match from suppliers to compliance with this requirement.

Steve Hutton
This point has discussed by Tony Smith across the webinar series and why it is important to stay within the intensity ratios. Generally, I would stick to one supplier and observe their data sheets to ensure they are maintaining the ratios and if discrepancies are found then alternate suppliers would need to be considered. Of course now with LED fixtures and fail open, mixing suppliers may raise compatibility issuesJohn
Q42How many number of ILCMS recomended for one circuit?and recomended cable length in one circuit?

Sekar Balakrishnan
Sekar, good to hear from you again and thanks for attending the TMS Tuesday's Webinar series. The recommended number of ILCMS per circuit will depend on the length of the circuit and individual OEM. You should engage with the OEM to determine if your parameters are within range for an optimal ILCMS communication and response times.

100 to 150 units is a reasonable range with 120 as a average target to design too. It is best to keep the ILCMS circuit lengths as short as possible and avoid long lengths near to the OEM limits. Again a reasonable target for designing circuits lengths should be below 10,000m

Each airport is different, with different circuit lengths between the ILCMS units and CCR rooms. Engagement with OEM is required during circuit design
Q43Dear john, what was that red lights extended of TCL??

Mohammad Ghashghaei

The FAA has a program called RWSL (Runway Status Lights) and this is also defined in ICAO Annex 14 Vol I Edition 8 - 5.3.30 Runway status lights. The RWSL consists of two parts the THLs (Take-off hold lights) and RELs (Runway Entrance Lights). The THLs are located on the runway and the RELs on the taxiway. RELs may be shown in the video.

Another possibility is trials for smarts lights that have the capability of providing two colours, and in this case both GREEN and RED, to enhance safety in a FtG installation during a conflict

Chandramohan Narayanan
Thank you!Felicity
Q45Is in approach fittings 6 degree elevation setting is mandatory??

Sudheer N
I am not sure that I understand your question. If you are asking for information on setting angles then you will find this in Annex 14 APP 2-1.Tony
Q46Will Rwy to be declared unserviceable(u/s) immediately if to consecutive lights in Aph/THR/RCL become u/s...what are time limits?See answer to Q37. Category 2 and 3 approaches and take-offs in RVR, 300m should not take place if the runway centreline lights are not serviceable. Tony
Q47Thanks for answering the que.

Prashant Dubey
Thank you.Felicity
Q48From your experiance, what is the best ILCMS product on the market? ADBSG, Honeywell, etc?

Nawar Rehawi
Products will perform differently according to local conditions. We suggest that you consult with your colleagues at comparable airports to determine the most suitable.Robert

Offering a new generation of training

From practical application training for airfield electricians through to consultants, designers, project personnel and installation contractors including dedicated seminars and workshops for national aviation authority inspectors and airport operations staff.